Asynchronous programming: types, classification, programming principles, concept, meaning and application

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Asynchronous programming: types, classification, programming principles, concept, meaning and application
Asynchronous programming: types, classification, programming principles, concept, meaning and application

Asynchronous programming (AP) is a form of parallel programming that allows a system unit to operate separately from the main application thread. When work is completed, it notifies the main thread whether the work has been completed or not. Such programming is beneficial as it increases the supported bandwidth, making it attractive given the Internet's growing need for highly scalable systems.

Asynchronous programming patterns

In order to handle the continuity of the result of non-blocking operations after their completion, various AP models have been created. Their advantages are evaluated in terms of how much they allow you to get closer to the scheme closest to the sequential one.

Asynchronous Programming Models
Asynchronous Programming Models

Types of AP models:

  1. Continuations step model - successive step model. This is the mostused asynchrony in Node JS. Each function receives information about how it should handle the result of success or error in the operation.
  2. Event model - event model, uses an event-driven architecture that allows non-blocking operations to report their completion on success or failure, requires correlation for synchronization.
  3. Promise model - Promise model, explained by the return values of non-blocking operations, regardless of the point in time at which the specified success or failure values were received.
  4. Generator model - generator model. Generators are used to temporarily return control to the calling program and then return to the subroutine by restoring the state to the point where it left off.

Architectural principles of Node

Despite the fact that Node JS has received some criticism recently regarding its use of computational cycles due to its single-threaded environment, its philosophy based on three strong architectural principles remains in demand.

JavaScript is asynchronous in nature, just like Node. A platform for running server-side JavaScript, Node.js was introduced in 2009 using an asynchronous event-driven I/O model, making it efficient and scalable.

Chat is the most typical example of a multi-user real-time Node.js application. Starting with IRC for many proprietary and open protocols on non-standard ports, it became possibleimplement everything in modern Noje.js with WebSockets running by default on the same port 80 that listens for new messages sent by their clients. On the client side, there is an HTML page with several handlers configured, one for the "Submit" button that selects a message and sends it to the WebSocket, and another that listens for messages coming to the client. Obviously this is a simple and basic model, but based on a different complexity variance.

The inactive model that Node JS uses in the API to support asynchronous programming is a step forward. Each non-blocking operation receives a function as the last parameter, which includes the continuation logic. It will be called after the end of the operation, both to process the results in case of success, and to resolve errors. The continue function allows you to specify the blocking operation, how it should continue after the operation is completed.

Architectural Principles of Node
Architectural Principles of Node

Serial flow control

In order to continue establishing sequential threads of execution within this model, it is necessary to chain each subsequent function into a chain, as a continuation of the previous one, where the results will be processed in case of success or failure. This leads to a diagonalization of the code, which has been called the pyramid of hell (callback hell), due to the lack of practical controllability, if only the number of consecutive chains grows minimally.

Sequential flow control
Sequential flow control

Parallelization - asynchronous execution of non-blocking operations occurs immediately, since its simple call is performed in the background by definition. Making blocking operations non-blocking requires a small encapsulation process that runs the operation in the background.

asynchronous execution of non-blocking operations
asynchronous execution of non-blocking operations

Synchronization of continuation functions

It requires a chain at the end of each parallel sequence of a termination function that applies certain logic only after it has been confirmed that all parallel branches have terminated. To implement this check, counter-based charts are used.

Continuation Function Synchronization
Continuation Function Synchronization

Example with successors:

  1. Parallelism, loop allows all non-blocking read-count pairs to be executed in a non-blocking manner.
  2. Sequence, each pair of reads is read through a step of continue functions.
  3. Synchronization, each parallel branch gets the last continuation that executes the completion logic as soon as all branches are guaranteed to complete.

Successor Libraries

There are many libraries that can help make life easier for developers working with the AP model. Some of them are related not only to AA, but also to the functional paradigm, which is driven by the fact that connection injection mechanisms are, in fact, functional advantages.

Types of libraries:

  1. Async,perhaps the most famous and widely used library for asynchronous successor-based programming. It offers various flow control methods for non-blocking functions.
  2. Join is an implementation of a synchronization method found in other languages such as C that works with threads. It can also be used in promises, although its use is less relevant in this case.
  3. Fn.js is a great library that implements various functional controls. Its practical applicability in this context is related to the possibilities it provides for generating non-blocking functions and applying validation.

Advantages and disadvantages

Asynchronous successor-based programming is a good option for situations with simple flow control logic. This usually refers to programs in Node JS that allow you to define a non-blocking response to incoming requests.

Model benefits:

  1. Simple request and response schemes.
  2. Consistency with functional programming patterns.
  3. Easy to understand as a conceptual mechanism.


  1. When control logic is underdeveloped, the process becomes more complex, resulting in code with distributed functional logic that is difficult to read, understand, and maintain.
  2. Difficulty in defining flow control logic.
  3. Highly customizable timing mechanisms.
  4. Control logic is shared among each non-blockingbranch.

Event driven model

An event is a signal in the business ecosystem. Anatomically, they usually consist of a type, a timestamp, and a set of data that characterizes the context in which the event occurred. Event Architecture (EDA) provides a mechanism for communication between customers and providers in a 1:N relationship and with nominal decoupling. One of its many uses is to troubleshoot asynchronous processing issues.

In event-driven, centralized architectures, there is a central mediating communication bus that is responsible for ensuring that listening clients register efficiently and trigger notifications on demand from providers. This mechanism allows for N:N cardinality and the circuit is called the PUB/SUB pattern.

In distributed event-driven architectures, each provider is responsible for managing the subscription of its clients and for sending notifications when an event occurs. The communication mechanism is also nominally separate, but typically the number of providers and clients is 1:N. This schema matches the observable schema or event sources in Node JS jargon.

Computational abstraction: Promise

Computational Abstraction: Promise
Computational Abstraction: Promise

A promise is a computational abstraction that is a commitment on the part of a non-blocking operation invoked to deliver a response to the calling program when the result is returned upon completion. A promise is an object that provides two methods to include processing logic on success, orfailure.

They follow a simple life cycle that you need to know in order to work with them. The essential value of a promise lies in two principles. First, the logic of the process in case of success or failure is applied only once. And second, the success or failure logic is guaranteed to run, even if the promise resolves before its drivers are injected. If required, the promise waits for its handlers, JavaScript asynchronous programming.

There are several ways to get promises, which can be identified as building patterns that appear periodically when using this model. The ES6 definition includes promises and Node JS version 0.12 has support for this specification. In addition, there are several libraries that implement the promise model. In order to have a comparative frame of reference, the Promises A+ standard was defined, which governs all implementations with objects available at that time.

Synchronous and asynchronous programming

Recommended to use JavaScript UA, loading all its tags and vendor code from it. This ensures the best compatibility with the largest number of vendors. This placement gives all vendor tags the greatest opportunity to complete tracking before the visitor proceeds to the next page.

Synchronous loading occurs when the browser must stop rendering a page in order to complete JavaScript code execution. If it detects a synchronous JS tag, then it blocks renderingpage until the code completes. This is analogous to a slow-moving truck on a one-lane road that slows down traffic behind it. Modern websites have moved away from this method because it poses a direct risk of delaying page load times.

The downside of this method is that the entire site is blocked from start to finish downloading the tag. While tag vendors enter into SLAs during their delivery period, several factors can affect performance. These include vendor-related slow response times, driving unnecessary application servers into a hybrid client-server model, and slow Internet traffic. If the user is loading tags synchronously, it is recommended that the provider has a response time of 100 milliseconds (ms) or faster.

Programming synchronous and asynchronous data processing via APIs are application programming interfaces that return data for requests either immediately or, respectively, later. Synchronous and asynchronous APIs provide a way to make immediate or scheduled requests for resources, data, or services when available. The modern method adopted for websites is to load tags asynchronously.

In this method, the JavaScript code is processed in parallel with the rest of the page content. This means that even if the vendor tag is slow to respond or load, it will not slow down the rest of the page. Using this approach, you can not only separate JavaScript tags that are loaded independentlyOn the other hand, the asynchronous method minimizes the impact of loading external JS files on the page rendering process.

Understanding and profiling C

Understanding and profiling C
Understanding and profiling C

Microsoft and the. NET community have made UA very easy with C's implementation of asynchronous wait. Recent versions of ASP. NET actively use it to improve performance. Many performance monitoring and profiling tools attempt to support and visualize the performance of 1C asynchronous programming. Stackify Prefix & Retrace products have great support for applications using C async await. First you need to understand how the code actually works using async await" and HttpClient as an example.

Understanding and profiling C
Understanding and profiling C

Using ILSpy, you can see how the compiler converts this code into an AsyncState Machine. The state machine executes all complex code behind the scenes, allowing developers to write asynchronous code.

HttpClient as an example
HttpClient as an example

Profiling asynchronous programming in C 5 0 is tricky because it crosses threads. Traditionally, a method and all calls to its child methods happen on the same thread. This makes it easier to understand the relationship between parent and child methods. With asynchronous code, it's a completely different story. The parent method runs on the same thread. When an I/O operation starts, the code in that thread ends. When the I/O operation completes, the code continues to execute innew stream. Linking code between these threads as part of a larger transaction is quite difficult.

AIOHTTP: server-client for asyncio

Aiohttp - allows users to create asynchronous servers and clients. The aiohttp asynchronous programming package works for client and server web sockets. The documentation from this aiohttp example is used to capture an HTML page.

AIOHTTP: server-client for asyncio
AIOHTTP: server-client for asyncio

This example shows how to upload one or more files, and you can also download files through the program. It specifies several new elements such as asynctimeout. This allows you to create a timeout context manager. Below code creates an asynchronous sync loop and uses it as the main function.

Create a Client Session object in the main asynchronous programming function and a coroutine, and a coroutine function that collects the URL of whatever needs to be downloaded. In the download coroutine, it creates a context manager that runs for about X seconds. After this number of X seconds, the context manager ends. Next, use the session's get() function, which finds the response object.

When a developer creates a response object's content attribute, it returns aiohttp. StreamReader which allows the user to upload a file in any size. As soon as the file is read, it will be written to the local disk. The response() function is then used to complete processing of the response. According to the documentation, it implicitly calls release(). However, asynchronousPython programming is clearly better. It's best to leave this feature to prevent further problems. There is one section here that blocks the section of code being written to disk, while the code remains locked. Using aiohttp is a real way to improve the workflow where users don't have to spend time creating a server, downloading links and writing asynchronous files, which reduces project creation time.

Asynchronous programming allows for greater efficiency in software by not blocking the thread of execution for long running processes or user interactions, both for Node and browser app development.

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