On the computer of a LAN user who wants to use it to constantly exchange messages on the Internet, the router's security system closes all incoming and outgoing ports by default. This is done in order to prevent viruses from getting into the devices of subscribers of the local network along with applications running on them. To participate in online games with a large number of participants, in addition to obtaining a static IP address from the provider, it is required to open certain ports. The article should help users in resolving this issue.
Port is the numeric identifier of the application running on the computer. It is an addition to the IP address of a device on the local network that has access to the Internet. Pass the name of the port on the network after the colon character (:) that separates the local IP address from the port number. An example is the entry - 192.168.1.5:80. It is written to determine the program that reveals the necessaryinformation. Here you can draw an analogy with the extension for the file, which determines the programs with which it can be opened. The concept of a port has no physical component.
How to open a port on a router? To do this, you need to go to its web interface. The entrance is carried out by entering into the line of the browser opened on the computer, the address of the router used (it is also a router) in the local network, followed by the login and password of the administrator. Thus, you first need to connect the router to the Internet provider and to the computer (PC), which will be used to make the necessary settings. The provider cable is connected to the WAN port of the router. A cable with RJ-45 type connectors at the ends is used to connect one of the LAN ports of the router to the PC network card connector.
The data required to open the necessary ports can be obtained by right-clicking on the cable connection symbol of the computer with the router on the LAN connections page. By expanding the "Status" item, you can find out in its properties the physical address (MAC address) of the computer and its IP address on the local network assigned by the router.
After selecting the "Properties" item in the context menu, it is necessary to check the setting of the mode for automatically obtaining IP addresses and DNS server in the TCP / IP version 4 column. If there is a discrepancy, it is required to check the boxes in these columns and confirm the changes by pressing the OK button.
IP addressrouter can be found from the information indicated on the label. It is attached to the bottom of the body of the product. As a rule, the address is represented by a combination of 192.168.0.1 or 192.168.1.1. It depends on the device model you are using. The factory settings for the administrator login and password for entering the router interface are also indicated here.
Possible ways to open ports
How to open a port on a router? Ports can be used by TCP and UDP protocols. The first of them uses the means of checking the reliability of the transmitted information. This leads to a decrease in bandwidth and a decrease in the exchange rate. The second protocol does not guarantee validity. It is broadcast and designed for use in online games with a large number of participants.
Some programs (utorrent, Skype) are able to open (forward, redirect) the ports necessary for their work. They implement the UPnP technology embedded in them. For most game servers to work, you have to open the port on the router manually. There are several ways to do this:
- activating the demilitarized zone (DMZ) function;
- using the virtual server setting;
- Using the Port Trigger setting.
The indicated methods of solving the issue - how to forward a port on a router - are applied depending on the model of the device used and the menu of its interface.
Using the DMZ function
How to open ports on a router? To resolve this issue, in the "Network" section of the main menuselect the WAN item and check the connection settings with the provider. On its page, you need to find and mark cells with NAT and IGMP designations, including the UDP broadcast protocol in the network. Without this, the necessary ports cannot be opened. This requirement must also be met for other port forwarding methods.
After saving the changes, you need to find the item in the menu, in the name of which there is an abbreviation DMZ. After going to its page, you must enter the IP address of the PC on the local network, determined at the stage of preparatory work, in the appropriate field, put a "tick" in the "Enable" box and press the "Save" button. Now all ports will be open on the device with the specified address. A always-on router firewall will continue to protect the local network.
Setting up a virtual server
In the router's interface menu, find the "Virtual Servers" section and open it. Its page, in addition to the field of the service port and the local IP address of the device, contains columns that indicate the initial and final values of external and internal ports. This data can be found in the description of the program for which port forwarding is performed. All specified fields are required to be filled in. The entered data must be saved and applied.
Configuring the "Port Trigger" function
This method is used in casethe absence of the items discussed above in the menu of the router interface. On the "Port Trigger" page, a rule is created that specifies the range of incoming and outgoing ports, and the type of protocol. This data is provided in the description of the application for which ports are being opened. After successively pressing the "Add" and "Save" keys, the new rule takes effect.
After making settings in the router interface, ports on the computer may remain closed. This may be caused by the Internet spam blocking rules of the computer's internal operating system firewall or a third-party antivirus program that is running on the computer. In both cases, you need to make changes to their exclusion lists for individual Internet resources.