How the browser works: types, device and principle of operation

Table of contents:

How the browser works: types, device and principle of operation
How the browser works: types, device and principle of operation

The principle of the Tor browser or any other program that provides the user with access to the Internet is quite complex and interesting. This article will attempt to describe this algorithm as briefly as possible, but, nevertheless, as detailed and informative as possible. Also, several causes of fairly relevant problems that arise when programs for accessing the Internet will be considered here.

How is the page built?

Drawing of a programmer writing in HTML 5
Drawing of a programmer writing in HTML 5

Learning the basics of the browser should start with the so-called "composition" of the page that the user is watching. In this case, we mean a set of tools that perform the following functions:

  • creating important code blocks;
  • prescribe interactive elements on the page;
  • gives the generated browser a look;
  • allows you to implement important components like comment fields;
  • displays animation content.

Let's take a closer look at each of the tools that will help you understand how the browser works:

The Java programming language. It is he who is responsible for creating universal code blocks on future pages. They do not depend on the type of operating system, which makes it possible to implement programs in the future browser that are compatible with any device that has access to the Internet and supports working with programs of this type

One of the variants of the JavaScript logo
One of the variants of the JavaScript logo

One of the varieties of the Java programming language -JavaScript. Another important component in learning how the browser works. This tool allows you to create interactive elements on the intended page

As an example, you can give options such as:

  • dynamic list-opening menu;
  • various pop-up forms;
CSS Logo
CSS Logo

CSS or Cascading Style Sheets. They are used to implement the design of the future page: font and text size, different colors, and so on.

PHP code is most commonly used in the development of modern websites. The most popular and relevant when you need to create a form or a block of comments.

Flash is one of the main elements that allows you to understand the principle of the Internet browser. It is responsible for displaying animated materials on the page. One of the clearest examples of using this tool is advertising banners or the banal display of videos on the YouTube website. It is also worth noting that Flash playsa significant role in the development of online games located on the pages of an Internet browser.

The next important step in understanding and checking the operation of the Internet browser is page loading. Let us consider in detail its six main stages.

Stage 1

It starts when the user interacts with the search bar. As soon as letters begin to be set and, subsequently, words, the hint algorithm is triggered, offering the user the previously entered, most relevant, or already used text query options by the user.

It can also give suggestions not only in the form of keywords, but also familiar or most famous virtual addresses.

Let's move on to the next step of how the browser works.

Stage 2

This level checks for the presence of the requested address in the browser cache, which is stored on the local disk of the used personal computer or any other device. This function is directly related to the previously indicated browser action, since the cache is often used by it to save and then remove and bring the addresses of pages that the user has visited quite often. When you start a previously saved address, the data is also corrected, in accordance with page updates.

Stage 3

The next step in learning how the browser works. Using the Hosts file located on the hard drive of the personal computer, the presence of the page requested by the user is checked. As planned, in Hostsip-addresses containing site addresses are saved.

Stage 4

The next step is performed if the requested page was not found in the previously specified file. In such a situation, the browser will search for the ip-address of the required page. This is done through the Domain Name System (more commonly known as DNS). They store all information about the sites on the network that are available to the user.

Stage 5

The next important information in the instructions on how the browser works. Now, through a chain of servers, the browser will establish a connection with the page that the user is looking for. As a rule, this approach allows you to reduce the level of load on the site you are looking for. This is quite relevant for resources with high popularity and attendance.

Stage 6

The very last step the browser takes. Earlier, we have already analyzed what the page that the user sees on the Internet consists of. So, at this stage, all parts of the code are collected, which represent the final result that opens for the user in the browser window.

So, you figured out what the page consists of and how it is searched and opened. Further, in order to understand how the browser works, it is necessary to deal with the issue of forming the speed of launching the start page and the subsequent search process.

What determines the speed of each individual Internet browser?

Browsers are written to work with completely different devices
Browsers are written to work with completely different devices

Next will be discussedseveral important components that affect the speed with which the browser's start page will be launched, and pages will also be searched. The following is a list of them:

Browser engine. Some kind of processor in any electronic device. It is responsible for shaping the page structure according to the HTML code, for displaying content using cascading style sheets, and for executing code written in embedded scripts. The fastest engine today is the one used in the Chrome browser, but its content is a trade secret of the manufacturer

HTML 5 logo
HTML 5 logo
  • Various additional features that allow the user to navigate between pages faster. For example, the preload algorithm. It consists in caching links that allow you to go from the current page to any other. Thus, when you click on the link, the new site will load somewhat faster. Similarly, this algorithm works with pages that host various multimedia content.
  • The caching procedure also affects the speed of loading pages in an Internet browser. The problem is that due to saving a large number of results on the hard disk, the free space on the computer's hard disk is clogged. This, in turn, leads to a general decrease in the performance of the operating system of the computer used.
  • Compression procedure. It is performed to reduce the traffic that is transmitted over the network, while not losing power.the performance of your device.

How to explain the difference in page loading speed in the same browser?

The explanation for this phenomenon is quite simple and quite short. Most often, you can notice the difference in the speed of loading tabs when you open a resource with dynamically generated pages. An example is online shopping. In order to offer a product that is right for you, it needs to save your preferences after each visit and send a large number of queries to the database. As a result, the overall loading speed of this page is noticeably slower than other tabs.

Common browser problems

Computer malfunction cartoon
Computer malfunction cartoon

Next, we will consider several fairly common cases of malfunctions in programs for accessing the Internet, as well as the most popular ways to fix them:

  • Unable to access some pages or the entire browser. Most often, either disabling the antivirus, or adding the program to the list of exceptions, or completely deleting and reinstalling the browser helps such a malfunction.
  • The disappearance of the buttons to open a new tab or the complete displacement of all keys. In this situation, it is worth checking the scale of the displayed pages. Perhaps it has been changed. You can correct the situation by pressing Ctrl+0.
  • 504 Gateway Timeout. It can also occur in the form of a message that the server has stopped responding. In this case, it is necessarycheck the browser and make sure that the computer is connected to the Internet, or try to get to the site using an anonymizer program.
Connection speed tester
Connection speed tester

Long loading of any page or too long launch of the browser. First, check your internet connection. Perhaps you do not have enough speed for the normal operation of applications. In the second option, you need to check the status of the computer's hard drive or clear the cache.

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