Windows Shell is the outer layer of the operating system kernel. With its help, the user gains access to the services, files and computing capabilities of the computer. Through the Windows shell, applications are started and stopped, monitoring and batch processing are carried out. How to manage Shell, where and what commands to enter for this, read on.
GUI shell and Classic Shell
The operating system shell consists of a set of programs that provide a user interface. Shell elements include the start menu, taskbar, desktop, various file management features, and Flip 3D.
The shell is a kind of bridge between the operating system and the user. Windows Shell interprets all commands in graphical (GUI) or text (TUI) form. The basis of the GUI is Windows Explorer. Once loaded, the application implements icons, windows, a toolbar, and other visible elements that provide access to OS files.
Starting with Windows 8.0, Microsoft began to change the graphical interface of the shell and far fromfor the better. The anger of users, and perhaps common sense, forced the developers to create Classic Shell for Windows 10.
This is a program to customize the appearance of the toolbar, the Start menu and add new features to File Explorer. With its help, the OS shell is configured to the familiar, classic Windows 7 interface.
How to use the utility?
Before you start, you need to download the program. The distribution is in the public domain on the official website of the developer. Classic Shell is compatible with Windows 10, 8, 7 and includes three components:
- Classic Explorer. Adds a toolbar and status bar to File Explorer.
- Classic Start Menu. Adds a start button and a traditional menu.
- Classic IE9. Adds a title bar and status bar for Internet Explorer.
After the installation of Classic Shell is complete, a window will open asking you to customize the appearance, styles of the Start menu and add hotkeys. You can choose exactly which items appear in the menu, enable new features, and even change the look of the button itself to your favorite.bmp and-p.webp" />
Text based interface and command line
The text user interface is fundamentally different from the graphical one. It is much more difficult to work with him. All information is presented in the form of special characters, letters and numbers, rather than simple and understandable windows. But TUI is much less demanding on computer resources,and text-based programs run faster and run on low-power hardware.
The part of the Windows Shell operating shell that provides control of the computer through the interactive input of commands is called the command interpreter. There are two types of interpreters for the Windows operating system. The first is cmd.exe, or command prompt, the second is PowerShell.
The command line looks a lot like MS-DOS. Control is entirely exercised by typing and entering alphanumeric instructions. It is for this reason that the command line is considered the prerogative of programmers and system administrators only. Beginners consider it something mysterious and incomprehensible.
But the command line provides fast execution of computer tasks, instant search and launch of programs. When a system is infected with a virus, the graphical interface is completely blocked or "freezes". In this situation, access to files is possible only through the command interpreter.
Getting started and a list of important CMD commands
There are several ways to access the command line. It all depends on the version of the installed operating system. To get started with Command Shell in Windows XP, you need to find "Run" in the "Start" menu and enter cmd.exe. In later versions, just press Win + R.
The total number of commands for cmd is about 280, the number varies depending on the version. To see the entire list, you need to go to the console, type help and press "Enter". memorize themit makes no sense to the average user. We offer you to get acquainted with the most necessary commands that will be useful in your work everywhere.
There is a separate opening program for each type of file. For example, the PDF format is Foxit, the Microsoft Office package for.doc. To select the desired software, you need to know the extension. But there are so many of them that there is a risk of forgetting or confusing.txt with.css or.docs. The Assoc command helps with this task and lists file type associations.
The command is designed to work with encrypted folders and files on NTFS disks. Usually they work with the graphical interface of Windows Shell, but in this mode, the complete removal of files is not possible. There is a backup copy that takes up extra space.
Finally erase all data and clean up space on unused parts of NTFS volumes via Cipher. To do this, enter cipher /W:path at the Windows Shell command prompt. The /W option deletes all files in the specified path without the possibility of recovering them.
Windows 8 and above has a restart feature with special boot options. Shell Windows 7 does not have this option. The Shutdown command is used instead:
- shutdown –s shuts down;
- shutdown –r reboots;
- shutdown –t 30 will turn off the computer after the time specified by the number at the end, in this case after half an hour;
- shutdown -f means forced session shutdownwork with turning off all running applications.
The action of the command depends on the parameter specified at the end. S stands for stop, r stands for reload, t stands for time.
System File Checker
The SFC command is designed to check the OS file system. It finds damaged "broken" files and replaces them without the direct participation of the user. It is an indispensable tool for system recovery and the best antidote for BSOD - "screen of death".
- sfc /scannow - performs an immediate scan with automatic file replacement;
- /scanonce - the scan will be run on the next restart;
- /scanboot - automatic check at each restart, to cancel it at the Windows Shell command line, enter sfc Revert;
- /verifyonly - verification without corrections;
You can run the program only with administrator rights. To do this, before starting work, you need to go to "user accounts" and uncheck "disable administrator rights".
The last utility that every conscientious user should be able to work with is DriverQuery. It generates a list of drivers. If you add the v parameter at the end, the program will show all the additional information. Using DriverQuery, you can find missing or requiring driver reinstallation. It is possible to monitor remote drivers by entering the corresponding IP address.