IP (Ingress Protection Rating) is a system for classifying the degrees of protection of the shell of equipment operating from electric current, from the penetration of moisture and solid objects in accordance with the international standard IEC 60529 (analogues of DIN 40050, GOST 14254-96). Everything related to this should be considered in more detail.
IP (degree of protection) refers to a method that is verified by standard test methods, provided by an enclosure that prevents access to hazardous parts, and also protects against the ingress of water or solid objects from the outside. Foreign bodies as a concept are tools and fingers touching current-carrying elements. Here, IP (degree of protection) means not only the safety aspect, but also the absence of harmful effects that can affect the operation of the elements. To determine the level of security, there is a special marking applied to any device powered by electricity.
IP (degree of protection) is indicated ondevices by means of an international security mark, after which there is a pair of numbers. The first of these indicates protection against the penetration of dense objects, and the second guarantees an obstacle to water, for example, IP54. If you have knowledge about the correspondence of certain numbers to specific classes, you can understand how and what to connect correctly. The degree of protection IP20 is the minimum protection class against possible finger contact with current-carrying elements. The maximum rating is IP68, which means that you have a dust-proof device that can be under water for quite a long time. The safety and specification of instruments is ensured only when all the required procedures in terms of their maintenance are carried out on time. It is important that you follow the manufacturer's instructions completely.
Understanding the specification
If we consider such a concept as IP (degree of protection), then the first digit in the characteristic indicates the protective capability provided by the shell. It prevents access to parts that present an increased danger, limiting or preventing the penetration into the shell of a certain part of the human body or object that may be in his hands, as well as equipment located inside the shell, from the penetration of various objects from the outside.
If the first digit in the characteristic is 0, then such a shell is not a guarantee of protection from penetration of variousobjects outside, nor from access to dangerous parts. The number 1 in this place indicates the possibility of protection from access by the back of the hand to elements that are dangerous to humans, 2 - with a finger, 3 - with some tool, 4-6 - with wire. In addition, the number 6 is a guarantee of total dust protection.
Second parameter IP (degree of protection)
Under the second characteristic figure is the level of protection of equipment against the negative effects of water, provided by a special shell. If we are talking about the value 0, then the complete absence of protection is implied. Under the number 1 is protection against drops falling vertically, 2 - vertically falling drops when deviated from the shell by 15 degrees, 3 - protection against rainwater; 4 - providing protection from full splashing, 5 - from water jets, 6 - from strong jets, 7 - from impacts associated with temporary immersion in water, 8 - from impacts that are associated with prolonged exposure to water. These two digits are indicated after the IP (degree of protection). The parameter value table, which contains the above information, allows you to determine which level is in question in each particular case.
Quite often, in the presence of protection against the ingress of liquid, we can talk about the possibility of automatically providing protection against the ingress of foreign objects and penetration. For example, if the device has a liquid protection value of 4, that is, from direct splashing, then we are talking about automatic compliance of protection against falling onlevel 5. IP65 rating guarantees protection against water jets and fine dust.
Most common classes:
- The degree of protection IP 20 means that the devices can be used indoors, as long as it is a normal environment with no heavy pollution. Typical applications include warm and dry industrial workshops, offices, theatres, shops.
- The degree of protection IP 21/IP 22 allows the use of devices in industrial premises without heating and under awnings, which is ensured by the presence of protection against ingress of drops and water condensation. They may be used under the conditions described in the previous paragraph.
- The degree of protection IP 23 allows the use of lamps or other devices in industrial premises without heating, as well as outside buildings. Naturally, they can also be installed in the places described above.
- The degree of protection IP 24 indicates the possibility of using devices outside buildings in conditions of fluctuating temperatures and humidity. They can also be used in the places described in the previous paragraphs.
- The degree of protection IP 44 allows the use of devices in street or outdoor lighting conditions, if we are talking about lamps. All are protected from splashes, raindrops and small solids.
- IP 50 rating indicates that the instrument can be used in a dusty environment. Such equipment is usually protected from rapid internal contamination. Similar devicesdo not use in high humidity conditions.
- IP 54 is the standard rating for waterproof performance. Devices are allowed to be washed, while negative consequences are completely excluded. If we are talking about lamps, they are often used in rooms where there is a high content of moisture and dust, as well as under various canopies. Very often, this class is typical for recessed LED fixtures.
- The degree of protection IP 60 indicates that, for example, the lamp is completely protected from the accumulation of dust, while it can be used in a rather dusty environment. In this version, devices are extremely rare. Usually, where such a class is required, devices are installed that have a degree of protection IP 65 / IP 66, related to jet-proof, that is, pressurized water jets can be used to clean them. While not completely watertight, moisture ingress will not adversely affect their function.
- Degree of protection IP 67/IP 68 means that the device can be submerged in water for a long time. Lamps of this class can be immersed in pools or fountains to illuminate them.
How to understand which device is in front of you?
Usually, the packaging of any electrical device, which is characterized by even a minimum degree of protection against external influences, contains information about this. It turns out that if there is no information about this either on the box or in the instructions, then we are talking about absolute insecurity,corresponding IP20.
Sometimes there is a letter on the marking that characterizes the degree of protection of people from access to hazardous elements, and it is indicated if in reality the level of protection exceeds that described by the first digit. Only protection against water is indicated, and the first digit was replaced with "X". So, there are several letters that are used in this field. Under the letter "A" hides the ability of the shell to protect against access to dangerous parts with the back of the hand, "B" - with a finger, "C" - with a tool and "D" - with a wire. Under the auxiliary letter "H" high-voltage equipment is hidden. The “M” marking indicates that the device was in working condition during water tests. The letter "S" refers to the immobility of the parts of the device during immersion in water. "W" guarantees protection against adverse weather conditions.
The degree of protection of the shell is allowed to be designated by some additional letter only if it fully satisfies the lower level parameters. The highest at the moment is IP69K, which is used for high temperature pressure washing. Such cases have not only increased protection against dust, but also the ability to withstand high water pressure during the washing process. This standard was originally developed for road vehicles, especially those requiring regular cleaning, but is now actively used in other industries - chemicaland food industry.
This or that degree of protection of the device shows where and under what conditions you can use it.