Ubuntu or Debian are Linux-based distributions. The article describes their differences and installation features.
Comparison and selection
In this age, software companies have tightened all the screws and raised the prices of their products. What to do if a person fundamentally does not want to pay for software and an operating system? There is a good alternative to products like Windows. There are completely free operating systems of the Linux family. The most popular of these are Ubuntu and Debian. There is also Linux Mint. But it's based on Ubuntu, so there's no point in taking it apart. Everything is the same, except for the interface. So what to install - Ubuntu or Debian? What are their similarities and differences? This is what we will try to figure out.
What is Ubuntu
The Ubuntu Linux distribution is the brainchild of Canonical. The word Ubuntu itself is translated from the Zulu languages as "philanthropy" or "humanity". That is, Canonical seems to hint to us that their product is made for people. The Ubuntu program is based on the Debian package base. That is why they are so similar.
Ubuntu ships with the Unity desktop by default. If you have a modern computer, then there will be no problems. And if your machine is weak, then Unitydoes not suit you in any way, since it “eats” too many resources. But it doesn't matter. Especially for weak machines, "lightweight" working environments were created: XFCE and LXDE. Based on them, even special distributions are assembled: Xubuntu and Lubuntu, respectively.
A person who has used Windows for many years is initially intimidated by the incomprehensible interface of Ubuntu. But this is only out of habit. When you start working in Ubuntu, you will understand how convenient it is. Installing Ubuntu will not create any problems even for a beginner. The installation process is laid out on the shelves.
What is Debian
Debian OS is the forefather of all Ubuntu-like systems. There are three OS branches currently being developed: Stable, Unstable and Testing. In Stable, everything is perfectly configured, using outdated but reliable software. This branch is ideal for servers and just for people who value the stability of the system. The Unstable branch is the scariest. There is a lot of everything new and "untested". It is because of this that frequent “crashes” of the system are possible, up to the complete failure of all components. And the Testing branch is the next stage after Unstable, where everything is already set up, but not yet completely.
Installing Ubuntu 14.04.3 Trusty Tahr
The first step is to decide which system image we need to download. For computers using a 32-bit processor architecture, you need to download an image marked i386. And for 64-bit systems - marked amd64.
The image was downloaded and successfully burned to disk. Now you can proceed to the installation process itself. It should be mentioned that the Ubuntu OS itself is loaded from the disk first. And then you can proceed with the installation in the Unity graphical shell. So, run the installer and select the language. After that, we will be prompted to connect to the Internet. We are connecting, as we will need to download language packs for the system. After that, the installer will prompt you to choose a disk partitioning method. If you're new to Linux and don't have important files on your disk, we highly recommend choosing the automatic partitioning method. The system will do everything for you.
After successfully partitioning the disk, the installer will prompt you to select the location of the computer, keyboard layout and all in the same vein. The next step will prompt you to come up with a username and password. It doesn't matter if Ubuntu or Debian, the password is required anyway. Without it, the system will not install. After entering all the necessary data, the installation of the OS itself will begin.
This process only takes 10-15 minutes. After successfully copying the files, you will be prompted to reboot the system. Agree and reboot. That's it, Ubuntu is installed.
Manual disk partitioning for installing Ubuntu
There are situations when there is a lot of necessary information on the hard disk. Here, automatic partitioning is not suitable, since the entire disk will be formatted in this way, and not any specific partition. This is where manual markup comes to the rescue.
So, in the window for choosing a disk partitioning method, select "Another option". The installer will give us a window. We only need to use the place where waspreviously installed Windows OS. We delete the system partitions of the previous OS and create new ones. It is recommended to make a system partition under Ubuntu in the amount of 10 GB. Select the file system type ext4 with the mount point "/". Ready. Now we need to create a swap partition. No matter how much RAM is in your machine, this section is necessary. Its volume should be the size of your physical RAM multiplied by two (for example, 4 GB - 8 GB). The partition type is swap. If there is free space left, then create a partition in ext4 format with the mount option "home /". It is needed to store user files, like "My Documents" in Windows.
Manual marking is over. Now select a 10 GB ext4 partition and start the installation.
Post installation setup
Now let's look at the main thing that needs to be done after installing the program. Ubuntu setup should start by installing all recommended updates. The system update center will help you here. At the first start of the OS, it will offer to update the components. We agree and update. After that, you need to restart your computer for the changes to take effect.
After the reboot, it's time to deal with the drivers. And here you will see the biggest plus of Ubuntu. Drivers for almost all devices are already installed. You just need to open the "Driver Manager" and check if everything is in place. If you see that the device does not use the "proprietary" driver - just enable it.
This is the basic Ubuntu setupfinished. You can use the system.
The first steps for installing this distribution are similar to those for installing Ubuntu. Therefore, it makes no sense to dwell on them in detail. Differences in installation begin at the disk partitioning stage. Let's take a look at it.
Unlike Ubuntu, here you need to use ext3 as the system partition. The volume must be set to a minimum size of 5 GB. The mount point is "/". The size of the swap partition should be set to half the size of the computer's physical RAM (4 GB - 2 GB). In the Ubuntu program, as far as we remember, this figure had to be doubled. Disk partitioning completed. We don't need anything else.
Further, all actions follow the Ubuntu scenario. After successful installation, reboot into the installed OS.
Setting up Debian after installation
Debian uses a lightweight XFCE desktop environment. It doesn't need any special setup. We need to go directly to the "Driver Manager" to check if everything is in place. Debian is not Ubuntu, it doesn't support all devices. This is not surprising, since the Debian program, which is not so difficult to configure, was originally positioned as a server OS. If everything is in place, we begin to use the system. And if not, then you will have to download the missing drivers. There is nothing terrible here. You just need to add the Ubuntu repositories in the "Update Manager", and all the drivers will fall into place. Now you can use Debian.
As we can see, the setup of the program is somewhat different from the setup of Ubuntu. In general, it should be said that newcomers to Debian have nothing to do. This system is for those who already have some experience with Linux. Setting up Ubuntu is much easier for the simple reason that there is not much to configure there.
Due to the similarity of the systems, it doesn't really matter which one to install - Ubuntu or Debian. If you are tired of paying money for no one knows what and being afraid of viruses, then it makes sense to pay attention to the free operating systems of the Linux family. The brightest representatives were considered by us above. Working with these programs is quite straightforward. Which is better to install: Ubuntu or Debian? There is only one answer to this question - what do you like more. But for beginners, it is best to install Ubuntu. Debian is pretty hard to figure out without some background.