Since the spring of 2014, Russia began to apply the Internet Censorship Law, which gives the right to a number of departments to block both individual web pages and entire sites without a court decision. At the moment, access to dozens of information resources is closed on the territory of the Russian Federation. But immediately after the adoption of this law, there were also ways to bypass the blocking of sites. Many of them have been proposed - from simple, accessible to any user, to technically complex, but giving additional bonuses.
You can also view prohibited sites using some Google services. If you go to the Google Translate page, paste a link to a blocked page into the translation box and press the enter key, the desired page will open. For the correct display of content, it is desirable to select the "Original" viewing method.
You can also use "Google" cache. To do this, just open the Google home page and copy the desired link into the search bar, adding "cache:" to it on the left without quotes, then press Enter.
A serious disadvantage of this method is the inability to view locked images, as well asinteractive website content. If social networks suddenly get blacklisted and the question arises of how to bypass the blocking of VKontakte, for example, then Google services will not help here. They are only suitable for viewing text on static pages.
Opera browser in turbo mode
The easiest way to visit banned sites in Russia is to turn on the turbo mode in the Opera browser. In this case, the traffic will not go directly, but through the Opera servers. Initially, this technology was created to speed up the loading of web pages and save traffic, but it turned out to be effective for overcoming censorship. Mobile versions of Opera and Chrome browsers also support turbo mode.
The disadvantages of this method include the fact that the turbo mode does not hide the user's IP address. Also, compressing images can degrade their quality.
The Yandex browser also has a turbo mode, but for obvious reasons it is unlikely to be effective as a tool to combat censorship restrictions.
Anonymizers are special websites designed, as the name suggests, to surf anonymously. With their help, you can also bypass blocking sites or get to those Internet resources where you were banned. Some anonymizers also allow you to select the country through which the traffic will go. In this case, the site you are accessing will assume you are a user from that country.
The scheme of work of anonymizers is verysimple. You just need to go to such a site and enter the address of the desired page in the field located on the site.
Anonymizers can be fraught with danger - the owner of such a service has the ability to intercept data transmitted by the user, including logins and passwords from sites. To protect your personal data, it is recommended to use animizers that support the secure connection (SSL) function.
Another inconvenience of these services is advertising banners. However, there are also anonymizers without ads.
Chrome and Firefox allow you to install additional plugins that extend the functionality of the browser. There are plugins for bypassing censorship.
One of the most efficient yet simple plugins is Ste althy. When using it, you only need to click on the button to direct traffic through the proxy server. Plugin icon will be green when proxy mode is enabled, red when disabled.
The friGate plugin is a bit more difficult to use. It directs through the proxy only traffic from those sites that are included in its list. The plugin has a default list, as well as the ability to add new sites there on its own. The advantage of this extension is the high data transfer rate.
A plug-in has already appeared, designed specifically to visit exactly those resources that Roskomnadzor has added to its "black list". Websites are blocked by this agency by sending IP addresses to Russian Internet providers.resources to be denied access. The NoZapret plugin collects data on blocked addresses from the Antizapret.info website, and then, based on them, independently generates a list of sites that will be opened through a proxy. All other connections will be made directly. This plugin is convenient because it does not require manual configuration and provides fast data loading.
It should be remembered that the use of such plug-ins does not provide complete anonymity on the Web, but only allows you to bypass the prohibitions imposed by the authorities of individual countries. In addition, as in the case of anonymizers, the owner of the proxy server through which traffic passes can, if desired, intercept users' personal data.
Tor is a distributed network that provides users with a high level of anonymity. Tracking the real location of someone who accesses the site through Tor is almost impossible, since the traffic passes in encrypted form through several nodes.
In order to use this technology, you need to download and install the Tor Browser Bundle from the official website. There are browser options for Windows, Mac OS and Linux operating systems. The Tor browser for the Android platform is called Orbot.
The advantage of using "Torbrowser" is that it allows you to both bypass the blocking of sites and perform truly anonymous surfing. Tor technology also allows you to create hidden sites that you canaccess only through the Tor network. You can learn more about such sites by visiting the Hidden Wiki - a directory of hidden services, which itself is only accessible through Torbrowser.
The Tor network also has serious drawbacks. First, it is a low data transfer rate. The fact is that the nodes of the network are supported by enthusiasts, so the bandwidth of the nodes can vary greatly. It is only natural that traffic passing through a few random nodes is often quite slow.
Another danger lies in the possibility of scanning traffic by the owners of end nodes, information from which is transmitted, unlike intermediate nodes, in unencrypted form. To avoid password theft, you should, if possible, work with those sites that support the https protocol.
A virtual private network, or VPN, is a technology that allows all traffic from all applications to pass through a remote server, usually located in another country. In this case, the data between the user's computer and the remote server is transmitted in encrypted form and cannot be intercepted by the provider.
The main feature of a VPN is that absolutely all traffic is sent through a proxy server. If you use several browsers, you do not need to configure each of them separately - the site blocking will be bypassed automatically.
There are several types of VPNs. Therefore, it will not be superfluous to dwell in more detail on theirfeatures.
PPTP - this protocol has been used for a long time. It is supported by all popular platforms and operating systems. You can configure the router to transmit traffic through this type of VPN without installing additional software. The disadvantage of this protocol is insufficiently reliable encryption. In addition, there may be difficulties with a PPTP connection via a 3G modem.
L2TP is a tunneling only protocol. Therefore, as a rule, it is used in conjunction with IPSec - this bundle also provides encryption. However, if you are only concerned with the question of how to bypass site blocking, encryption is not necessary. This type of VPN also does not require the installation of special software.
OpenVPN is the most common type of virtual private network. Provides secure encryption of transmitted information. Overcomes NAT and corporate firewalls when properly configured. OpenVPN requires additional software to be installed on your computer.
Most VPN services are paid. Free VPNs either have a limit on the amount of traffic they can send and receive, or show ads on the pages they browse. The speed of paid services is also, of course, much higher.
There are sites on the Internet that regularly publish up-to-date lists of open proxies. They are a list of IP addresses and ports. This data must be entered into the network settings of the browser, having previously selected manual proxy settings. There are alsoplugins for browsers that make it easier to work with proxy lists.
Open proxies can be anonymous or transparent. When using anonymous proxies, the sites accessed by the user will not know his real IP address and location. When using transparent information about where the user accesses the Network from, will remain open. But in any case, the blocking of sites by the provider will be successfully overcome.
Using open proxy lists is a rather inconvenient way to circumvent censorship. There are several reasons for this.
- First of all, page loading speeds through public proxies are usually very slow.
- Secondly, such proxies are unstable and close quickly.
- Third, open proxies can be created by hackers to collect passwords and other personal information from unsuspecting users.
Public DNS servers
Another effective way to freely visit blocked sites is to use alternative public DNS servers. By default, requests to Internet resources are processed on the provider's DNS server. And if a program is installed there to block blacklisted sites, then instead of a banned site, the user will be shown a stub page.
Using public DNS servers allows you to ignore ISP blocking. In order to start using this tool, it is enough to change the network settings onceoperating system.
The most popular alternative server today is Google Public DNS. Its primary and secondary addresses for DNS queries:
Google, in addition to solving the problem of how to bypass site blocking, also promises to speed up Internet surfing and improve user protection from computer scammers.
The decentralized I2P network is designed to reliably protect user anonymity. This technology is also called the "deep Internet", because within the I2P network there are websites, peer-to-peer networks, instant messengers and other services that are technically impossible to censor. Network invulnerability is ensured by encryption and tunneling of all internal traffic. The client program processes not only the information requested by the user, but also serves as an intermediate node for the transit transmission of traffic from other network participants. As a result, neither ISP nor government regulators can trace the final recipient of encrypted packets.
Increasing Internet censorship in Russia has already led some popular sites to acquire mirrors on the I2P network. An example is the free library "Flibusta", which opened sites in I2P and Tor.
Another way to visit banned sites in Russia using I2P is to use gateways from an anonymous networkto the regular Internet. A serious disadvantage of such gateways is the very low loading speed of sites. It is expected that as the number of I2P users increases, the data transfer rate will also increase both within the network and when exchanging data with the external Internet.
If you have your own server located outside of Russia, the question of how to bypass provider blocking can be solved using SSH tunneling. The remote server in this case is used as a normal SOCKS proxy.
To use this method, it is not necessary to buy or rent a foreign server for a long time. You can use the Amazon EC2 service, which allows you to use a dedicated server on an hourly basis at a price of three cents per hour.
Setting up a tunnel to a remote server is simple. It is enough to enter a command like this through the console:
ssh -D localhost:port [email protected]_address
- port - open port on your computer;
- user_name - your login on the remote server;
- server_address - remote server host.
After that, in the network settings of the browser, you need to select the use of SOCKS proxy and specify the desired port and localhost as the address.
The arsenal of blocking bypass methods is so wide that a detailed description of each of them can take more than a dozen paragraphs. One way or another, they all come down to traffic transfer through a foreign server, as a result of which the list used by the Russian provider forwebsite blocking is rendered useless. Here is a small list of the most interesting ways.
JAP is a well-known online anonymity program. Passes traffic through a chain of proxy servers. Has a paid mode that increases the speed of surfing
- Ultrasurf is a project developed in China to circumvent government censorship. Requires software installation. By default configured to use Internet Explorer.
- TunnelBear is a paid application for mobile devices. Uses VPN technology. It has a free version limited to 500 megabytes of traffic per month. Requires customization.
- Onion Pi is a portable device that routes all traffic through the Tor network and distributes Wi-Fi access. Allows you to surf the Internet anonymously from a computer that does not have any programs for anonymous surfing installed. This can be convenient if you have to work from someone else's or company computer.
Obviously, if users start massively circumventing state-imposed restrictions on access to Internet resources, censors will take additional measures to ensure the blocking of prohibited sites. Methods of restricting the online activity of citizens can be both purely technical and police.
The most popular proxies and exit points of the Tor network can be blocked. Private individuals may be banned from using VPNs. However, practicallyit is not possible to restrict the use of I2P and products like the JAP program. SSH tunneling will also remain a reliable way to get around the bans.
Effective censorship on the Internet is possible only if the country is completely disconnected from the World Wide Web, similar to how it is implemented in North Korea. In all other cases, you can always find ways to get to the information you need.